Natural Resources and Ecological Conditions
Water is the major component of the environment renewed by natural resources, providing social and economic conditions for the society development.
Specificity of water systems of Karelia are defined by affinity of location of the main White Sea-Baltic watershed to bases of erosion (to the White sea, the Onego and Ladoga lakes), dismembered relief of the territory, many tectonic infringements filled by water, close deposition of crystal breeds and abundance of atmospheric precipitation.
Internal superficial waters of Karelia belong to pools of two seas: the Baltic Sea and the White Sea. Basic elements of hydrographic network of the republic are lakes, rivers, water basins and bogs. In Karelia there are more than 61 thousand lakes, about 27 thousand rivers, and 29 water basins. The total surface of lakes in view of the area of floodings at formation of water basins makes 18,8 thousand square kilometers.
85% of the area of Onego Lake and about 40% of the area of Ladoga lake are located in Karelia. In view of these areas water covers 23% of the territory of the republic. The general resources of superficial waters in Karelia make 195 cubic meters, of which 25% fall on river run-off. The basic stocks of superficial waters are in water basins and lakes, volume of which water weights 2,9 times more than annual river run-off.
Regional feature of the Republic of Karelia is complex water-economic systems with a high degree of regulation of the regulated stream by hydraulic engineering constructions. The abundance of a water network of lakes, characteristic for the region, has predetermined wide use of lakes as water basins. Here, for the first time in our country, lakes are used as power water basins. The majority of water basins of the republic are created by backwater of lakes of hollow type, whereas in Russia and in the world water basins of valley type prevail. By the current moment in Karelia there are 29 water basins in the general total capacity 372 439 million cubic meters.
In the territory of the republic stocks of underground waters of 13 deposits have been reconnoitered and approved. The reconnoitered stocks for economic-drinking water supply make 34,1 thousand cubic meters a day, including 23,0 thousand cubic meters a day prepared for industrial development. Essential lack of the majority of reconnoitered deposits of underground waters is their significant remoteness from the water-consumer.
The share of underground waters in total balance of water supply makes about 2%, and 5% in the balance of economic-drinking water supply. Water supply with use of underground waters is usually decentralized. Water inlets, as a rule, consist of single wells (65%), 25% of water-selection fall on them. The underground water centralized supply is organized in Olonets only. Productivity of distributed water inlets is from 1 up to 478 cubic meters a day, as a rule, up to 30 - 50 cubic meters a day.
The forecasted resources of fresh underground waters of Karelia are estimated at 820,88 thousand cubic meters a day. They are characterized by low extent of exploration (3.5%) and development of reconnoitered stocks (5%). Some of them are from the category of revealed or preliminary estimated, and it is necessary to continue prospecting works for preparation of deposits for industrial development.
The structure of water consumption and water drainage by water-users in the territory of the Republic of Karelia during the past 5 years remains almost constant. On the first place on volumes of water use (more than half of water inlet and sewage disposal) there are industrial enterprises, followed (on volumes of water use) by enterprises of housing and communal services, in insignificant volumes there are agricultural enterprises, enterprises of transport and other water-users.
Volumes of water consumption and water drainage in 2002-2004, million cubic meters
|Activities|| 2002|| 2003|| 2004
|Volumes of water consumption|| 223,93|| 232,39|| 235,45
|Volumes of water drainage in superficial water objects|| 220,37||
|Including polluted sewage|| 198,24|| 194,24
As of 1/1/2005 217 state water-users are registered. In 2004 the total water inlet from natural water sources has made 235,45 million cubic meters. For industrial needs of enterprises it has been used 155,08 million cubic meters. The economic-drinking needs water discharge has made 52,7 million cubic meters.
Use of water in systems of turnaround and is repeated-consecutive water supply has reached 929,87 million cubic meters. The factor of economy of fresh water due to turnaround and repeated water supply in the republic has made 0,86.
The volume of waste water discharged in superficial water objects in 2004 has made 242,37 million cubic meters, including 209,13 million cubic meters of polluted sewage. The volume of crude waste water discharged in superficial water objects, has reached 21,23 million cubic meters, quantity of waste water undergone complete biological and mechanical purifiction before discharge in reservoirs has made 187,9 million cubic meters (77.5% of the total sewage).
As a result of a teamwork of the Government of Karelia territorial and federal nature protecting bodies the project "Construction of a Dam on the river of Vama" been developed and is implemented now being financed from the federal budget. In compliance with this project in 2005 it has been allotted 13,14 million rbl. to finance works within its framework.
Within the period from 2002 to 2005 due to means of the federal budget performance of the following actions has been provided:
- inspection of hydraulic works located in the territory of the Republic of Karelia;
- conducting the state monitoring of superficial water objects of the republic;
- designing of water-security zone of Onego Lake has begun;
- installation of water-security signs in the coastal protective strip of Onego Lake in territories of Kondopoga and Prionezhsky districts has been done;
- within the framework of carrying out of prefreshet works on Yushkozesky water basin 1100 meters long coast-protecting dams have been constructed there in settlements of Kalevala (550 m) and Kuusiniemi (550 m) of Kalevala district.
Financed by the budget of the Republic of Karelia construction of objects of water supply and water drainage in a number of districts of the Republic of Karelia was carried out. Construction of a water inlet waste disposal plant in Petrozavodsk have begun.