Natural Resources and Ecological Conditions
Ecological conditions in the republic remain stable.
In districts where pulp and paper and metallurgy enterprises work ecological conditions are more intense, as influence of large enterprises on condition of reservoirs, atmospheric air, pollution of grounds is the most significant. First of all, it is characteristic for such industrial centres as cities of Petrozavodsk, Segezha, Kostomuksha, Kondopoga, and the settlement of Nadvoitsy.
To solve the most important problems in the field of environment preservation and rational wildlife management in 2004 republican target program "Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Karelia in 2003-2010" has been approved.
In 2004 within the framework of the program nature protection actions were executed under 38 contracts, their cost made 10,4 million rbl., in 2005 - under 37 contracts, and their cost made 4,6 million rbl.
The Government of Karelia published the State report on condition of environment in the Republic of Karelia in 2004. In 2005 in the territory of the republic the following nature protection actions were held: Days of protection against ecological danger, March of Parks.
At the same time, despite of work executed and nature protection actions, there are serious environmental problems in the republic demanding prompt solution. First of all, among them there are the following:
- Pollution of Onego and Ladoga lakes, the White sea, Vygozero-Ondsky reservoir, rivers of Shuya, Neglinka, Lososinka and their water-currents with crude and not enough purified sewage, improper maintenance of population with water of normative quality;
- insufficiency of financial resources to perform the complex of nature protection actions at municipal enterprises of housing and communal services.
Significant part of waste disposal plants demand repair, replacement of equipment and reconstruction. Deterioration of sewer waste disposal plants and networks of water drain increases every year. However, absence of means for reconstruction and purchase of equipment in local budgets leads to unsatisfactory work of waste disposal plants and low degree of sewage treatment, emergencies, physical destruction of waste disposal plants.
In six regional centers of the republic there are no sewage disposal plants where, basically, sewage is discharged in reservoirs being sources of drinking water supply (towns of Kem, Belomorsk, Medvezhiegorsk, Pudozh, settlements of Louhi and Kalevala);
- recycling of petrocontaining waste;
Significant part of waste polluted by mineral oil is located on firm household waste disposal tips. There are almost no places of disposal of waste polluted by mineral oil, and enterprises processing it in the republic.
Reasoning from the developed ecological situation, to primary goals in the field of environment preservation it is necessary to mention the following:
- construction of sewage disposal plants in towns of Kem, Belomorsk, Medvezhiegorsk, Pudozh, settlements of Louhi and Kalevala;
- in budgets of republican and local levels planning assignment for reconstruction of sewage disposal plants being the municipal property;
- attraction of small and medium business in the sphere of waste treatment;
- recycling and processing of petrocontaining waste;
- introduction of low-waste and resource-saving technologies at existing enterprises and enterprises under construction.
Simultaneously with a complex of nature protection actions the attention of Government of the RK is directed on observance of requirements of the natural resources and nature protection legislation, implementation of the basic directions of the state policy and public management in the field of environment preservation and ecological safety maintenance. Interaction of the republican bodies of government and territorial federal bodies with public organizations and mass media concerning state control and supervision over the sphere of nature management and environment preservation is organized.
According to the Agency for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection in the RK, within the period from 2002 to 2005 696 control of observance of requirements of the legislation in the sphere of nature management was lead. During control actions 1960 infringements of the natural resources and nature protection legislation are revealed. 559 infringements are eliminated. 1677 instructions are issued, 805 instructions (48%) are executed.
For admitted offences in the field of nature management and environment preservation 248 ( 210 of them in 2005) administrative punishments are issued in the form of penalties to the sum of 1717,8 thousand rbl., and 1046,18 thousand rbl. (66%) of penalties have been collected.
With a view of suppression of illegal circulation of objects of fauna included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation and jurisdictional to the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), control of trading enterprises was made. The state ecological examination was held on project documentation of construction of new and expansion of operating enterprises extracting and processing minerals (building materials, block stone); on results of carrying out of search, estimation and prospecting works for various kinds of minerals; on location and construction of trout farms on reservoirs of the republic; on information proving volumes of catch of quoted objects of fauna within seasons of 2005-2006; on information proving volumes of general admissible catches of water biological resources, on changing the status of wood land to not wood land, on land development and other directions.
Public management in the sphere of functioning of especially protected natural territories was carried out. Nature-reserved fund of the Republic of Karelia makes 955,09 thousand hectares, or 5.5% of total area of the republic, and includes 264 objects, including two state reserves, two national parks, one natural park, 47 reserves, 109 nature sanctuaries and a number of other objects. The modern network of especially protected natural territories covers all districts of Karelia and includes almost all forms of them.
Work on expansion of the network of especially protected natural territories is conducted constantly. Papers for organization of a Kumi-porog monument of regional value in Kalevala national district, Syrovatka landscape reserve in Kem district are prepared.
By the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of May 23, 2001 N725-p organization of Kalevalsky national park in the republic is stipulated. Papers for making decision on organization of Kalevalsky national park at the federal level are submitted to the Government of the Russian Federation. With a view of informing nature managing enterprises about changes in operating natural resources and nature protection legislation of the Russian Federation seminars on application of the legislation of the Russian Federation on bowels of the Earth exploitation, water use, safety of hydraulic works and environment preservation under modern conditions in the territory of the Republic of Karelia were held.
Cooperation with public ecological organizations (KRPO Greenpeace Association of Karelia, SPOK) is supported.