Nature Management and Protection of the Environment
Major public policy in the sphere of nature management and environment control is creation of favourable conditions for eco-friendly, rational, sustainable and efficient use of natural resources both with a view of life support of the population, and requirements of development of economy of the republic for achievement of the maximum social and economic effect.
As of January 1, 2014 , total area of forest land of the republic makes 14,9 million hectares, of which 14,5 million hectares is forest land. In the structure of forest resources 31% of the total area is protective forest, 69% is merchantable forest.
Wood vegetation covers the land which area makes 9,3 million hectares, of which coniferous forest account for 88.2%, and soft-wooded broadleaved forest account for 11.8%.
General stock of wood made 961,3 million m3, of which coniferous forest makes 840,1 million m3.
On the age structure of 35.2% of the total area is occupied by young trees, 24.2% — by middle-aged, 7.5% — by forest approaching maturity, 33.1% — by mature and overripe forest.
As of January 1, 2014 532 agreements granting the right of long-term use of forest land (487 agreements as of January 1, 2013) have been concluded, most of which fall to the share of geological studying of bowels and development of mineral deposits — 175 agreements (on the area of 8,8 thousand hectares), timber harvesting account for 171 agreements (with established allotment of 7,9 million m3), construction, reconstruction and operation of transportation, communications and utilities lines — 138 agreements (on the area of 3,1 thousand hectares).
Allowable cut in the republic has made 11,5 million m3, the established allotment has made — 8,2 million m3, 8,3 million m3 was declared by forest declarations and concluded agreements of woodland sale and purchase (taking into account the balance carried forward from 2012), 6 million 3 was logged (5,4 million m3 in 2012).
In the year of account 7300 agreements of woodland sale and purchase for own needs in the volume of 304,1 thousand m3 (89% to the level of 2012) were concluded, 235,9 thousand m3 was logged de facto (85%). Auctions of rights to conclude agreements of woodland sale and purchase in the volume of 76,5 thousand m3 have been held.
Due to means of subventions from the federal budget in 2013 works on forest tenure on the non-leased forest reserve land (237,8 thousand hectares) took place. Tenants of forest land have performed works on leased sites on the area of 466,9 thousand hectares.
Efficiency of regeneration of forests is confirmed by reduce of the harvesting area from 148,7 thousand hectares in 2012 to 143,7 thousand hectares in 2013. However, growth of the area of unwooded land up to 166 thousand hectares is observed (164,7 thousand hectares in 2012), that is caused by growth of the burned-out and dead forest due to forest fires in 2013.
With due account for measures of assistance to natural renewal in 2013 took place on the area of 17,8 thousand hectares (90.8% to the volume stipulated by the Forest Plan), artificial forest restoration — on the area of (80.5%).
During the fire-dangerous season of 2013 in territory of the forest land of the Republic of Karelia it had been registered 395 forest fires on the total area of 14,5 thousand hectares (55 forest fires on the area of 206 hectares in 2012). Deterioration of fire conditions in the forest was promoted by hot, dry weather at total absence of precipitation. On the number of forest fires the season of 2013 remained at the average level, on the total area passed by fires has surpassed the average long-term level.
Suppression of forest fires in the republic was carried out by forces of specialised forest fire protection establishment SUE RK Karelian Center for Aviation and Surface Protection of Woods which includes paraborne fire service, ground fire-prevention units and 6 fire-chemical stations of the 3rd type.
Depending on the class of fire hazard during the fire-dangerous season aviapatrol by planes Sessna and An-2, helicopters Mi-2 and Mi-8, video observation by means of 23 cameras with information transfer to 14 local monitoring centres was carried out.
In 2013 had been held 33,5 thousand primary and control inspections, actions directed on maintenance of observance of requirements of forest legislation, 3069 infringements were revealed, administrative penalties amounting to 7,3 million roubles were collected, contractual penalties have made 24,8 million roubles, payments for the damage to the forest have made 23,5 million roubles, claims amounting to 35,5 million roubles were secured.
To exercise delegated authority on implementation of the federal state forest supervision 7048 patrollings of the territory of the forest land have been held, 465 facts of infringement of forest legislation were revealed.
Within the scope of measures taken for decriminalization of timber industry complex, with the assistance of law-enforcement and supervising bodies, actions for revealing, suppression and disclosing of crimes related to illegal timber harvesting were performed. Within 2013 in the territory of forest area it had been revealed 320 facts of illegal timber harvesting (364 facts in 2012), including 245 facts at patrolling and spot-checks. The total amount of illegal timber harvesting has made 10586,8 m3 (14176,2 m3 in 2012). Damages caused to the forest through illegal timber harvesting has made 145,2 million roubles. Decrease in volume of illegal timber harvesting and the number of facts of illegal timber harvesting testifies to efficiency of measures taken.
Within the scope of interdepartmental preventive operational procedure Lesovoz 177 spot-checks have been held during which 114 vehicles transporting round timber (35 in 2012) and 52 timber shipment and acceptance sites (26 in 2012 are up) were inspected.
14 facts of illegal timber harvesting have been revealed. Law enforcement bodies have launched 3 criminal investigations under the article 260 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.
Inspections of logging enterprises participating in foreign trade activities aimed at revealing and suppression of infringements of the legislation of the Russian Federation at wood export through the border took place.
Introduction of the national system of voluntary forest certification continued. From total amount of the territory of forest area it has been certificated 4,0 million hectares with 3,3 million m3 of established annual volume of timber distributing that makes 26% of woodland and 43% of the leased territory.